FutoIn Microservices concept

Any mature well-designed monolithic application is split into program modules. Each FutoIn service can be seen as such module. Each call to Service is done as ordinary function call.

Unlike common misconception based on alternative microservice solutions, FutoIn microservices are designed for scalability across processes and nodes, but they still fit into a monolithic application very well.

Note: please learn FutoIn Interface first.

The FutoIn microservice terminology:

  1. Iface - FutoIn-based API specification.
  2. Service - implementation of business logic with strictly defined interface.
  3. Executor - processes requests made to registered Services.
  4. Invoker - a party which make requests to Executor to execute Service logic.
  5. CCM - Connection & Credentials Manager - essential part of Invoker to maintain communication channels, direct requests to known endpoints and provide call security.

FutoIn application

A bare minimal FutoIn application requires at least one CCM to request remote peers or Executor to process API requests.

However, a typical FutoIn application consists of the following parts:

  1. CCM - essential central part to:

    • register remote, local and in-process named API endpoints,
    • perform requests to the API endpoints identified by name,
    • transparently handle security aspects,
    • check requests and responses against FutoIn interface specs.
  2. Internal Executor - one or more instances to handle in-process calls for application sub-systems with System security level.

    • Common case is execution of Database, Cache and other lower level API services.
  3. Public Executor - receive and process calls from other peers.

    • Typically used to host primary business logic.

Primary benefits

FutoIn is API focused - quite strict, but still very human-friendly interfaces.

Security concept is integral part of API - each message is atomic and self-sufficient for transportation and processing.

FutoIn API is agnostic to transport channel - no dependency on heavy HTTP framing. Each message can be easily re-coded from one representation to another without lose of any information while it transits from Invoker to Executor and back. More effective message coding techniques can be introduced without Service code changes.

Runtime environment

Primary runtime is server environment using any of technologies: Node.js, PHP, Ruby, Python, Java, Go, C/C++, Rust, etc.

Client applications can be built using FutoIn communication concept as well. Quite common case is dynamic website or even native apps.

Scalability, security and high availability

The same business logic can be bundled into a single application process for maximum performance avoiding API message marshalling logic.

For bare simple high availability, two and more instances of such applications may run with proper load balancer in front of them.

Over time, many projects separate some parts of a monolithic applications based on separation of expanded development teams and their scope of responsibilities, security scope of critical business logic, performance/stability considerations, etc.

FutoIn microservice concept allows achieving that without any business logic code modification - each Service is agnostic to deployment configuration.

For maximum security, a large FutoIn project should have an isolated gateway (hub) to handle API message authentication, enforce processing limits and integrate defense systems.

Centralized hubs vs. service discovery

Note: this functionality is in development.

Overall Cloud community shifts towards Service Discovery which assumes component-to-component interaction. Even though it has performance benefits, it is more difficult to trace such communication for security and manageability purposes.

Instead, FutoIn architecture is a centralized Hub. All Executors dynamically register against such Hub through a bi-directional channel. High-availability and scalability details are hidden in the Hub implementation. They can change over time without requiring Executor changes.


  • Business Logic can gradually change without breaking established client connections.
  • External API endpoint can also pass through the Hub.
  • The Hub may seamlessly redirect message to another Executor instance on technical failure.

    • More fine control then generic load balancer can provide.
  • Executor’s security logic can be more lightweight when the Hub takes such responsibilities.

    • Easier and safer to add support for new technologies.
    • Shrinking of security scope.
  • Communication failure and/or node downtime is detected directly.

    • Basically, a better integration of service discovery.
  • Higher security through more strict isolation of components.

    • Simpler to setup firewall and other isolation mechanisms.
  • Greater possibilities for security and debugging of production cases.

    • Possibility to add advanced logic by authorized security team without affecting ordinary applications with business logic.